International Journal of Biomaterials http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Biomechanical Performances of Networked Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate: Effect of Photoinitiator Concentration, Temperature, and Incubation Time Wed, 27 Jan 2016 10:02:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/3208312/ Nutrient conduit networks can be introduced within the Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate (PEGDA) tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the scaffold. Nutrient conduit networks can be created on PEGDA by macrochannel to nanochannel fabrication techniques. Such networks can influence the mechanical and cell activities of PEGDA scaffold. There is no study conducted to evaluate the effect of nutrient conduit networks on the maximum tensile stress and cell activities of the tissue scaffold. The study aimed to explore the influence of the network architecture on the maximum tensile stress of PEGDA scaffold and compared with the nonnetworked PEGDA scaffold. Our study found that there are 1.78 and 2.23 times decrease of maximum tensile stress due to the introduction of nutrient conduit networks to the PEGDA scaffold at 23°C and 37°C temperature conditions, respectively. This study also found statistically significant effect of network architecture, PI concentration, temperature, and wait time on the maximum failure stress of PEGDA samples ( value < 0.05). Cell viability results demonstrated that networked PEGDA hydrogels possessed increased viability compared to nonnetworked and decreased viability with increased photoinitiator concentrations. The results of this study can be used for the design of PEGDA scaffold with macrosize nutrient conduit network channels. Morshed Khandaker, Albert Orock, Stefano Tarantini, Jeremiah White, and Ozlem Yasar Copyright © 2016 Morshed Khandaker et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Chitosan-Nanobioglass 3D Porous Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering Thu, 14 Jan 2016 14:19:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/9825659/ The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize bioglass-natural biopolymer based composite scaffold and evaluate its bone regeneration ability. Bioactive glass nanoparticles (58S) in the size range of 20–30 nm were synthesized using sol-gel method. Porous scaffolds with varying bioglass composition from 10 to 30 wt% in chitosan, gelatin matrix were fabricated using the method of freeze drying of its slurry at 40 wt% solids loading. Samples were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to obtain interconnected porous 3D microstructure with improved mechanical strength. The prepared scaffolds exhibited >80% porosity with a mean pore size range between 100 and 300 microns. Scaffold containing 30 wt% bioglass (GCB 30) showed a maximum compressive strength of  MPa. Swelling and degradation studies showed that the scaffold had excellent properties of hydrophilicity and biodegradability. GCB 30 scaffold was shown to be noncytotoxic and supported mesenchymal stem cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation as indicated by MTT assay and RUNX-2 expression. Higher cellular activity was observed in GCB 30 scaffold as compared to GCB 0 scaffold suggesting the fact that 58S bioglass nanoparticles addition into the scaffold promoted better cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, the study showed that the developed composite scaffolds are potential candidates for regenerating damaged bone tissue. Kanchan Maji, Sudip Dasgupta, Krishna Pramanik, and Akalabya Bissoyi Copyright © 2016 Kanchan Maji et al. All rights reserved. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms Thu, 14 Jan 2016 14:18:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/8098943/ Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries. Farnaz Hajifattahi, Elham Moravej-Salehi, Maryam Taheri, Arash Mahboubi, and Mohammad Kamalinejad Copyright © 2016 Farnaz Hajifattahi et al. All rights reserved. Integration of Rabbit Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Hydroxyapatite Burr Hole Button Device for Bone Interface Regeneration Tue, 05 Jan 2016 07:10:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/1067857/ Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, multipotent stem cells isolated from adipose tissue, present close resemblance to the natural in vivo milieu and microenvironment of bone tissue and hence widely used for in bone tissue engineering applications. The present study evaluates the compatibility of tissue engineered hydroxyapatite burr hole button device (HAP-BHB) seeded with Rabbit Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ADMSCs). Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress response, apoptotic behavior, attachment, and adherence of adipose MSC seeded on the device were evaluated by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The results of the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay indicated that powdered device material was noncytotoxic up to 0.5 g/mL on cultured cells. It was also observed that oxidative stress related reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis on cell seeded device were similar to those of control (cells alone) except in 3-day period which showed increased reactive oxygen species generation. Further scanning electron and confocal microscopy indicated a uniform attachment of cells and viability up to 200 μm deep inside the device, respectively. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the in-house developed HAP-BHB device seeded with ADMSCs is nontoxic/safe compatible device for biomedical application and an attractive tissue engineered device for calvarial defect regeneration. Viswanathan Gayathri, Varma Harikrishnan, and Parayanthala Valappil Mohanan Copyright © 2016 Viswanathan Gayathri et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Bleaching and Thermocycling on Resin-Enamel Bond Strength Tue, 29 Dec 2015 13:26:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/921425/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bleaching and thermocycling on microshear bond strength of bonded resin composites to enamel. Enamel slices were prepared from ninety-six intact human premolars and resin composite cylinders were bonded by using Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z350 or Filtek silorane adhesive and resin composite. Each essential group was randomly subdivided to two subgroups: control and bleaching. In bleaching group, 35% hydrogen peroxide was applied on samples. Thermocycling procedure was conducted between 5°C and 55°C, for 3.000 cycles on the half of each subgroup specimen. Then microshear bond strength was tested. Methacrylate-based resin composite had higher bond strength than silorane-based one. The meyhacrylate-based group without bleaching along with thermocycling showed the most bond strength, while bleaching with 35% carbamide peroxide on silorane-based group without thermocycling showed the least microshear bond strength. Bleaching caused a significant degradation on shear bond strength of silorane-based resin composites that bonded using self-etch adhesive resin systems. Horieh Moosavi, Hamideh Sadat Mohammadipour, Marjaneh Ghavamnasiri, and Sanaz Alizadeh Copyright © 2015 Horieh Moosavi et al. All rights reserved. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics Sun, 06 Dec 2015 06:24:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/274082/ The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have the properties with significant potential uses in dentistry. This paper reviews the properties, mechanism of action, and various applications of these placental membranes in general and specifically in Periodontics. Akanksha Gupta, Suresh D. Kedige, and Kanu Jain Copyright © 2015 Akanksha Gupta et al. All rights reserved. Cyanoacrylate for Intraoral Wound Closure: A Possibility? Sun, 15 Nov 2015 10:00:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/165428/ Wound closure is a part of any surgical procedure and the objective of laceration repair or incision closure is to approximate the edges of a wound so that natural healing process may occur. Over the years new biomaterials have been discovered as an alternate to conventional suture materials. Cyanoacrylate bioadhesives are one among them. They carry the advantages of rapid application, patient comfort, resistance to infection, hemostatic properties, and no suture removal anxiety. Hence this study was undertaken to study the effect of long chain cyanoacrylate as an adhesive for intraoral wound closure and also to explore its hemostatic and antibacterial effects. Isoamyl-2-cyanoacrylate (AMCRYLATE) was used as the adhesive in the study. In conclusion isoamyl cyanoacrylate can be used for intraoral wound closure, as an alternative to sutures for gluing the mucoperiosteum to bone, for example, after impaction removal, periapical surgeries, and cleft repair. Its hemostatic and antibacterial activity has to be further evaluated. Parimala Sagar, Kavitha Prasad, R. M. Lalitha, and Krishnappa Ranganath Copyright © 2015 Parimala Sagar et al. All rights reserved. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide Thu, 12 Nov 2015 10:01:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/928679/ The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w). The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568 dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198 kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability. Harshal A. Pawar and K. G. Lalitha Copyright © 2015 Harshal A. Pawar and K. G. Lalitha. All rights reserved. Maxillary Sinus Augmentation Combining Bio-Oss with the Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate: A Histomorphometric Study in Humans Mon, 12 Oct 2015 08:43:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/121286/ Purpose. To investigate the regenerative results obtained with the association of bone marrow aspirate concentrate using the Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate (BMAC) method to a xenogeneic bone graft (Bio-Oss) in sinus floor elevation. Materials and Methods. Using a randomized controlled study design in eight consecutive patients (age of 55.4 ± 9.2 years), 16 sinus floor lift procedures were performed with Bio-Oss alone (control group, CG, ) or combined with bone marrow aspirate concentrate obtained via the BMAC method (test group, TG, ). Six months after the grafting procedures, bone biopsies were harvested during implant placement and were analyzed by histomorphometry. Results. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly higher amount of vital mineralized tissue in TG when compared to the CG (55.15 ± 20.91% and 27.30 ± 5.55%, resp.). For nonvital mineralized tissue, TG presented a statistically higher level of Bio-Oss resorption when compared with the CG (6.32 ± 12.03% and 22.79 ± 9.60%, resp.). Both groups (TG and CG) showed no significantly different levels () of nonmineralized tissue (38.53 ± 13.08% and 49.90 ± 7.64%, resp.). Conclusion. The use of bone marrow concentrate obtained by BMAC method increased bone formation in sinus lift procedures. Paulo José Pasquali, Marcelo Lucchesi Teixeira, Thiago Altro de Oliveira, Luis Guilherme Scavone de Macedo, Antonio Carlos Aloise, and André Antonio Pelegrine Copyright © 2015 Paulo José Pasquali et al. All rights reserved. Cellular Nutrition in Complex Three-Dimensional Scaffolds: A Comparison between Experiments and Computer Simulations Sun, 11 Oct 2015 11:16:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/584362/ Studies on bone cell ingrowth into synthetic, porous three-dimensional (3D) implants showed difficulties arising from impaired cellular proliferation and differentiation in the core region of these scaffolds with increasing scaffold volume in vitro. Therefore, we developed an in vitro perfusion cell culture module, which allows the analysis of cells in the interior of scaffolds under different medium flow rates. For each flow rate the cell viability was measured and compared with results from computer simulations that predict the local oxygen supply and shear stress inside the scaffold based on the finite element method. We found that the local cell viability correlates with the local oxygen concentration and the local shear stress. On the one hand the oxygen supply of the cells in the core becomes optimal with a higher perfusion flow. On the other hand shear stress caused by high flow rates impedes cell vitality, especially at the surface of the scaffold. Our results demonstrate that both parameters must be considered to derive an optimal nutrient flow rate. Claudia Bergemann, Patrick Elter, Regina Lange, Volker Weißmann, Harald Hansmann, Ernst-Dieter Klinkenberg, and Barbara Nebe Copyright © 2015 Claudia Bergemann et al. All rights reserved. Smooth Muscle Cell Alignment and Phenotype Control by Melt Spun Polycaprolactone Fibers for Seeding of Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels Sun, 30 Aug 2015 13:41:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/434876/ A method has been developed to induce and retain a contractile phenotype for vascular smooth muscle cells, as the first step towards the development of a biomimetic blood vessel construct with minimal compliance mismatch. Melt spun PCL fibers were deposited on a mandrel to form aligned fibers of 10 μm in diameter. The fibers were bonded into aligned arrangement through dip coating in chitosan solution. This formed a surface of parallel grooves, 10 μm deep by 10 μm across, presenting a surface layer of chitosan to promote cell surface interactions. The aligned fiber surface was used to culture cells present in the vascular wall, in particular fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. This topography induced “surface guidance” over the orientation of the cells, which adopted an elongated spindle-like morphology, whereas cells on the unpatterned control surface did not show such orientation, assuming more rhomboid shapes. The preservation of VSMC contractile phenotype on the aligned scaffold was demonstrated by the retention of α-SMA expression after several days of culture. The effect was assessed on a prototype vascular graft prosthesis fabricated from polylactide caprolactone; VSMCs aligned longitudinally along a fiberless tube, whereas, for the aligned fiber coated tubes, the VSMCs aligned in the required circumferential orientation. Animesh Agrawal, Bae Hoon Lee, Scott A. Irvine, Jia An, Ramya Bhuthalingam, Vaishali Singh, Kok Yao Low, Chee Kai Chua, and Subbu S. Venkatraman Copyright © 2015 Animesh Agrawal et al. All rights reserved. Shynthesis and Characterizations of Calcium Hydroxyapatite Derived from Crabs Shells (Portunus pelagicus) and Its Potency in Safeguard against to Dental Demineralizations Tue, 07 Jul 2015 11:53:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/469176/ Crab’s shells of Portunus pelagicus species were used as raw materials for synthesis of hydroxyapatite were used for protection against demineralization of teeth. Calcination was conducted to crab’s shells of Portunus pelagicus at temperature of 1000°C for 5 hours. The results of calcination was reacted with (NH4)2HPO4, then dried at 110°C for 5 hours. Sintering was conducted to results of precipitated dried with temperature variations 400–1000°C for a hour each variation of temperature then characterized by X-ray diffractometer and FTIR in order to obtain the optimum formation temperature of hydroxyapatite is 800°C. The hydroxyapatite is then tested its effectiveness in protection against tooth demineralization using acetate buffer pH 5.0 with 1 M acetic acid concentration with the addition of hydroxyapatite and time variation of immersion. The results showed that the rate of tooth demineralization in acetate buffer decreased significantly with the provision of hydroxyapatite into a solution where the addition of the magnitude of hydroxyapatite is greater decrease in the rate of tooth demineralization. Indah Raya, Erna Mayasari, Afdaliah Yahya, Muhammad Syahrul, and Andi Ilham Latunra Copyright © 2015 Indah Raya et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Determination of Oxidative Stress Related Toxicity on Repeated Dermal Exposure of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Rats” Thu, 16 Apr 2015 06:38:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/320547/ Parayanthala Valappil Mohanan, Santhakumar Syama, and Arumugam Sabareeswaran Copyright © 2015 Parayanthala Valappil Mohanan et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Evaluation of Bioactivity of Chemically Deposited Hydroxyapatite on Polyether Ether Ketone Mon, 09 Mar 2015 12:17:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/475435/ Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) is considered the best alternative material for titanium for spinal fusion cage implants due to its low elasticity modulus and radiolucent property. The main problem of PEEK is its bioinert properties. Coating with hydroxyapatite (HA) showed very good improvement in bioactivity of the PEEK implants. However the existing methods for deposition of HA have some disadvantages and damage the PEEK substrate. In our previous study a new method for deposition of HA on PEEK was presented. In this study cell proliferation of mesenchymal stem cell and apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF) tests were conducted to probe the effect of this new method in improvement of the bioactivity of PEEK. The mesenchymal stem cell proliferation result showed better cells proliferation on the treated layer in comparison with untreated PEEK. The apatite formation results showed the growth of the HA on the treated PEEK but there was not any sight of the growth of HA on the untreated PEEK even after 2 weeks. The results showed the new method of the HA deposition improved the bioactivity of the treated PEEK in comparison with the bare PEEK. D. Almasi, S. Izman, M. Sadeghi, N. Iqbal, F. Roozbahani, G. Krishnamurithy, T. Kamarul, and M. R. Abdul Kadir Copyright © 2015 D. Almasi et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Clinical Impact of ISO 4049 in Comparison with Miniflexural Test on Mechanical Performances of Resin Based Composite Sat, 28 Feb 2015 09:47:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/149798/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different specimens dimensions on the mechanical properties of a commercial microfilled resin composite by using a modified ISO 4049 standard protocol, that generally provides specimen dimensions of 25 mm length 2 mm width 2 mm height; these standard dimensions are not clinically realistic considering the teeth diameter and length average. Furthermore, the overlapping irradiations required lead to specimens that are not homogeneous with the presence of some flaws due to packaging steps. For this reason, a miniflexural test was employed in this work both to simulate clinically realistic dimensions and to concentrate fewer defects. The flexural tests were performed at varying span length, in the range between 18.5 mm as stated by the ISO 4049 flexural test (IFT) and 10.5 mm according to the miniflexural test (MFT), at the increasing of layers with a 1 mm buildup multilayering technique. The results evidenced the impact of specimen dimensions on mechanical performances and consequently stability of resin-based composite with the formation of an asymmetrical structure which possesses higher stiffness and strength at increasing layering steps. Luigi Calabrese, Francesca Fabiano, Lucio Maria Bonaccorsi, Valerio Fabiano, and Chiara Borsellino Copyright © 2015 Luigi Calabrese et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication of TiO2 Crystalline Coatings by Combining Ti-6Al-4V Anodic Oxidation and Heat Treatments Sun, 15 Feb 2015 08:37:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/395657/ The bio- and hemocompatibility of titanium alloys are due to the formation of a TiO2 layer. This natural oxide may have fissures which are detrimental to its properties. Anodic oxidation is used to obtain thicker films. By means of this technique, at low voltages oxidation, amorphous and low roughness coatings are obtained, while, above a certain voltage, crystalline and porous coatings are obtained. According to the literature, the crystalline phases of TiO2, anatase, and rutile would present greater biocompatibility than the amorphous phase. On the other hand, for hemocompatible applications, smooth and homogeneous surfaces are required. One way to obtain crystalline and homogeneous coatings is by heat treatments after anodic oxidation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of heat treatments on the thickness, morphology, and crystalline structure of the TiO2 anodic coatings. The characterization was performed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray reflectometry. Coatings with different colors of interference were obtained. There were no significant changes in the surface morphology and roughness after heat treatment of 500°C. Heat treated coatings have different proportions of the crystalline phases, depending on the voltage of anodic oxidation and the temperature of the heat treatment. María Laura Vera, Mario Roberto Rosenberger, Carlos Enrique Schvezov, and Alicia Esther Ares Copyright © 2015 María Laura Vera et al. All rights reserved. Histopathological, Histomorphometrical, and Radiographical Evaluation of Injectable Glass-Ceramic-Chitosan Nanocomposite in Bone Reconstruction of Rat Sun, 08 Feb 2015 10:10:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/719574/ Background. Bone defects following tumor resection and osteolysis due to bone lesions, periodontal tissue disorders, and bone reconstruction are challenges that surgeons face. Gass-ceramic-chitosan nanocomposite contains chitosan, a derivative of crustaceans’ exoskeleton. Methods. Thirty-two 6–8-week-old male Wistar rats were chosen. One hole on each right and left tibia was made. The right tibia holes were filled with injectable glass-ceramic-chitosan nanocomposite, and the left tibia holes were left empty. After 7, 14, 28, and 60 days, histopathological, histomorphometrical, and radiographical assessments were performed. Results. Radiographic density on days 7 and 14 was significantly higher in the right tibias than in the left tibias. Trabecular bone thickness, which was higher in the right tibias, increased from day 7 to day 60 in both right and left tibias, although not significantly. Conclusions. Glass-ceramic-chitosan nanocomposite is suggested for use in bone repair in cases of bone loss. More histopathological, histomorphometrical, and radiographical assessments are also recommended. Maryam Seyedmajidi, Seyedmahmood Rabiee, Sina Haghanifar, Seyedkamal Seyedmajidi, Seyed Gholam ali Jorsaraei, Homayoun Alaghehmand, Naghmeh Jamaatlu, and Ali Bijani Copyright © 2015 Maryam Seyedmajidi et al. All rights reserved. Reduction of Silver Ions by Cell Free Extracts of Westiellopsis sp. Sun, 01 Feb 2015 12:54:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/539494/ Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Westiellopsis sp. (A15), a filamentous cyanobacterium belonging to the family Fischerellaceae, has been demonstrated. Aqueous silver ions (Ag+) when exposed to the culture filtrate of Westiellopsis were reduced in the solution, which were characterized by biophysical measures utilizing the UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and FTIR. The nanoparticles exhibited the maximum absorbance at 420 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy, while the SEM micrograph revealed that the aggregated nanoparticles vary in size between 20 nm and 5 µm. However, the FTIR analysis provided evidence for presence of proteins in the filtrate to be involved in the reduction of silver ions. P. T. V. Lakshmi, Devi Priyanka, and A. Annamalai Copyright © 2015 P. T. V. Lakshmi et al. All rights reserved. Silver Nanoparticles in Dental Biomaterials Thu, 15 Jan 2015 11:36:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/485275/ Silver has been used in medicine for centuries because of its antimicrobial properties. More recently, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized and incorporated into several biomaterials, since their small size provides great antimicrobial effect, at low filler level. Hence, these nanoparticles have been applied in dentistry, in order to prevent or reduce biofilm formation over dental materials surfaces. This review aims to discuss the current progress in this field, highlighting aspects regarding silver nanoparticles incorporation, such as antimicrobial potential, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and long-term effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for more studies to determine the optimal concentration of silver nanoparticle and its release over time. Juliana Mattos Corrêa, Matsuyoshi Mori, Heloísa Lajas Sanches, Adriana Dibo da Cruz, Edgard Poiate Jr., and Isis Andréa Venturini Pola Poiate Copyright © 2015 Juliana Mattos Corrêa et al. All rights reserved. Ciprofloxacin Release Using Natural Rubber Latex Membranes as Carrier Mon, 22 Dec 2014 06:48:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/157952/ Natural rubber latex (NRL) from Hevea brasiliensis is easily manipulated, low cost, is of can stimulate natural angiogenesis and cellular adhesion, is a biocompatible, material and presents high mechanical resistance. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a synthetic antibiotic (fluoroquinolone) used in the treatment of infection at external fixation screws sites and remote infections, and this use is increasingly frequent in medical practice. The aim of this study was to develop a novel sustained delivery system for CIP based on NRL membranes and to study its delivery system behavior. CIP was found to be adsorbed on the NRL membrane, according to results of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results show that the membrane can release CIP for up to 59.08% in 312 hours and the mechanism is due to super case II (non-Fickian). The kinetics of the drug release could be fitted with double exponential function X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows some interaction by hydrogen bound, which influences its mechanical behavior. Heitor Dias Murbach, Guilherme Jaques Ogawa, Felipe Azevedo Borges, Matheus Carlos Romeiro Miranda, Rute Lopes, Natan Roberto de Barros, Alexandre Vinicius Guedes Mazalli, Rosângela Gonçalves da Silva, José Luiz Ferreira Cinman, Bruno de Camargo Drago, and Rondinelli Donizetti Herculano Copyright © 2014 Heitor Dias Murbach et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Oxidative Stress Related Toxicity on Repeated Dermal Exposure of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Rats Sun, 21 Dec 2014 08:42:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/476942/ Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) have numerous applications, such as substitute for bone grafting, bone fillers, bioceramic coating, and dental fillings. The toxicity of these nanomaterials is of growing concern despite their significant scientific interest and promising potential in many applications. In this study, an in-house synthesized, characterized HANP of size <50 nm was investigated for the dermal toxicity. A paste of HANPs was prepared in water and applied on the dorsal side of the rats for 28 days. At the end of 28 days, blood was subjected to haematological and biochemical analysis. Gross necropsy was conducted and major organs were collected for histopathological observations. Liver from the animals was evaluated for lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and antioxidant enzymes activity. It was observed that none of the animals showed any abnormality during the experimental period. Gross examination of carcasses did not reveal any abnormality in the organs examined. The results also demonstrated that there was no significant fluctuation in the level of antioxidant defense mechanisms, lipid peroxidation, and haematological and biochemical parameters. There was no histopathological lesion observed in any of the organs. Hence, it can be concluded that the synthesized HANPs were nontoxic at cellular level, when exposed dermally to rats. Mohanan Parayanthala Valappil, Syama Santhakumar, and Sabareeswaran Arumugam Copyright © 2014 Mohanan Parayanthala Valappil et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Surface Treated Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles on Some Mechanical Properties of Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer Tue, 09 Dec 2014 07:00:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/750398/ Current materials used for maxillofacial prostheses are far from ideal and there is a need for novel improved materials which mimic as close as possible the natural behavior of facial soft tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of surface treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2) on clinically important mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer. 147 specimens of the silicone elastomer were prepared and divided into seven groups (). One control group was prepared without nanoparticles and six study groups with different concentrations of nanoparticles, from 0.5% to 3% by weight. Specimens were tested for tear strength (ASTM D624), tensile strength (ASTM D412), percent elongation, and shore A hardness. SEM was used to assess the dispersion of nano-SiO2 within the elastomer matrix. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test (). Results revealed significant improvement in all mechanical properties tested, as the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. This was supported by the results of the SEM. Hence, it can be concluded that the incorporation of surface treated SiO2 nanoparticles at concentration of 3% enhanced the overall mechanical properties of A-2186 silicone elastomer. Sara M. Zayed, Ahmad M. Alshimy, and Amal E. Fahmy Copyright © 2014 Sara M. Zayed et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Evaluation of Voids Present in Conventional and Capsulated Glass Ionomer Cements Using Two Different Conditioners: An In Vitro Study Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:10:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/935240/ This in vitro study evaluated the presence of voids in powder-liquid and capsulated glass ionomer cement. 40 cavities were prepared on root surfaces of maxillary incisors and divided into four groups. Cavities were conditioned with glass ionomer cement liquid (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in Groups 1 and 3 and with dentin conditioner (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in Groups 2 and 4. Conventional powder-liquid glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) was used as a restorative material in Groups 1 and 2. Capsulated glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) was used in Groups 3 and 4. Samples were sectioned and viewed under stereomicroscope to check for the presence of voids within the cement and at the cement-tooth junction. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc tests. Group 4 showed statistically significant results () when compared to Groups 1 and 2 for voids within the cement. However, for voids at the margins, the results were statistically insignificant. Mamta Kaushik, Roshni Sharma, Pallavi Reddy, Pallavi Pathak, Pooja Udameshi, and Narmatha Vallakuruchi Jayabal Copyright © 2014 Mamta Kaushik et al. All rights reserved. Direct Metal Laser Sintering Titanium Dental Implants: A Review of the Current Literature Mon, 01 Dec 2014 00:10:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/461534/ Statement of Problem. Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technology that allows fabrication of complex-shaped objects from powder-based materials, according to a three-dimensional (3D) computer model. With DMLS, it is possible to fabricate titanium dental implants with an inherently porous surface, a key property required of implantation devices. Objective. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for the reliability of DMLS titanium dental implants and their clinical and histologic/histomorphometric outcomes, as well as their mechanical properties. Materials and Methods. Electronic database searches were performed. Inclusion criteria were clinical and radiographic studies, histologic/histomorphometric studies in humans and animals, mechanical evaluations, and in vitro cell culture studies on DMLS titanium implants. Meta-analysis could be performed only for randomized controlled trials (RCTs); to evaluate the methodological quality of observational human studies, the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used. Results. Twenty-seven studies were included in this review. No RCTs were found, and meta-analysis could not be performed. The outcomes of observational human studies were assessed using the NOS: these studies showed medium methodological quality. Conclusions. Several studies have demonstrated the potential for the use of DMLS titanium implants. However, further studies that demonstrate the benefits of DMLS implants over conventional implants are needed. F. Mangano, L. Chambrone, R. van Noort, C. Miller, P. Hatton, and C. Mangano Copyright © 2014 F. Mangano et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/581029/ Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading) showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Arezoo Jahanbin, Mostafa Abtahi, Farzin Heravi, Mohsen Hoseini, and Hooman Shafaee Copyright © 2014 Arezoo Jahanbin et al. All rights reserved. Pore Geometry Optimization of Titanium (Ti6Al4V) Alloy, for Its Application in the Fabrication of Customized Hip Implants Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:03:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/313975/ The present study investigates the mechanical response of representative volume elements of porous Ti-6Al-4V alloy, to arrive at a desired range of pore geometries that would optimize the reduction in stiffness necessary for biocompatibility with the stress concentration arising around the pore periphery, under physiological loading conditions with respect to orthopedic hip implants. A comparative study of the two is performed with the aid of a newly defined optimizing parameter called pore efficiency that takes into consideration both the stiffness quantity and the stress localization around pores. To perform a detailed analysis of the response of the porous structure over the entire spectrum of loading conditions that a hip implant is subjected to in vivo, the mechanical responses of 3D finite element models of cubic and rectangular parallelepiped geometries, with porosities varying over a range of 10% to 60%, are simulated under representative compressive, flexural as well as combined loading conditions. The results that are obtained are used to suggest a range of pore diameters that lower the effective stiffness and modulus of the implant to around 60% of the stiffness and modulus of dense solid implants while keeping the stress levels within permissible limits. Sandipan Roy, Debojyoti Panda, Niloy Khutia, and Amit Roy Chowdhury Copyright © 2014 Sandipan Roy et al. All rights reserved. A Porous TiAl6V4 Implant Material for Medical Application Thu, 16 Oct 2014 06:23:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/904230/ Increased durability of permanent TiAl6V4 implants still remains a requirement for the patient’s well-being. One way to achieve a better bone-material connection is to enable bone “ingrowth” into the implant. Therefore, a new porous TiAl6V4 material was produced via metal injection moulding (MIM). Specimens with four different porosities were produced using gas-atomised spherical TiAl6V4 with different powder particle diameters, namely, “Small” (<45 μm), “Medium” (45–63 μm), “Mix” (90% 125–180 μm + 10% <45 μm), and “Large” (125–180 μm). Tensile tests, compression tests, and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) were used to analyse mechanical properties. These tests revealed an increasing Young’s modulus with decreasing porosity; that is, “Large” and “Mix” exhibit mechanical properties closer to bone than to bulk material. By applying X-ray tomography (3D volume) and optical metallographic methods (2D volume and dimensions) the pores were dissected. The pore analysis of the “Mix” and “Large” samples showed pore volumes between 29% and 34%, respectively, with pore diameters ranging up to 175 μm and even above 200 μm for “Large.” Material cytotoxicity on bone cell lines (SaOs-2 and MG-63) and primary cells (human bone-derived cells, HBDC) was studied by MTT assays and highlighted an increasing viability with higher porosity. Axel Deing, Bérengère Luthringer, Daniel Laipple, Thomas Ebel, and Regine Willumeit Copyright © 2014 Axel Deing et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Four Endodontic Biomaterials against Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus aureus Sun, 12 Oct 2014 12:35:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/383756/ Root canal sealers that possess good antimicrobial property can prevent residual and recurrent infection and contribute to successful endodontic therapy. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of four endodontic sealers, AH Plus, Tubliseal EWT, EndoRez, and iRoot SP, against three different microorganisms, E. faecalis, C. albicans, and S. aureus, by direct contact test. 10 μL microbial suspensions were allowed to directly contact the four endodontic sealers for 1 hr at 37°C. Subsequently microbial growth was measured spectrophotometrically every 30 min for 18 hours. The microbial suspensions were simultaneously tested to determine the antimicrobial effect of components which are capable of diffusing into the medium. The results revealed that AH Plus and iRootSP had significantly higher antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis. AH Plus and Tubliseal EWT showed significantly higher antimicrobial activity against C. albicans and S. aureus compared to iRoot SP and EndoRez. EndoRez showed the least antimicrobial activity against all the three microorganisms. Inhibition of microbial growth is related to the direct contact of microorganisms with the sealers. In conclusion AH Plus had significantly higher antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, C. albicans, and S. aureus. Duddi Narendra Nirupama, Mohan Thomas Nainan, Rajendran Ramaswamy, Sethumadhavan Muralidharan, Hulimangala Hosakote Lingareddy Usha, Roshni Sharma, and Soham Gupta Copyright © 2014 Duddi Narendra Nirupama et al. All rights reserved. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants Tue, 07 Oct 2014 07:35:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/609624/ This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. Nour Sh. El-Gendy, A. Hamdy, and Salem S. Abu Amr Copyright © 2014 Nour Sh. El-Gendy et al. All rights reserved. The Evaluation of Various Restoration Techniques on Internal Adaptation of Composites in Class V Cavities Thu, 02 Oct 2014 12:56:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/148057/ Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different restoration techniques on the formation of internal microgaps between materials and dentin in class V restorations. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five extracted human premolars were prepared with standardized class V cavity outlines (3 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm). The cavities were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 cavities each and restored according to manufacturer’s instructions: Group 1: preheating (55°C) conventional composite (Filtek Z250), Group 2: flowable composite (Filtek Flow), Group 3: Filtek Flow + Filtek Z250 light-cured separately, Group 4: Filtek Flow + Filtek Z250 light-cured simultaneously, and Group 5 (control): Filtek Z250 at room temperature (23°C). The specimens were then thermocycled and cross-sectioned through the center of the restoration. Subsequently, impressions were taken, and epoxy resin replicas were made. The internal adaptation of the materials to the axial wall was analyzed under SEM. Results. The preheated Filtek Z250 (Group 1) showed better internal adaptation than the room temperature groups . The combination of Filtek Flow with Filtek Z250 which was light-cured separately (Group 3) exhibited better internal adaptation than control group . Conclusion. Different restoration techniques exhibit different behavior regarding internal adaptation to dentin after photopolymerization. D. Dionysopoulos, C. Papadopoulos, and E. Koliniotou-Koumpia Copyright © 2014 D. Dionysopoulos et al. All rights reserved.